Coronary Heart Disease Is Not a Plumbing Problem

Majid Ali, M.D.


A Single Microscopic Field Invalidates the Erroneous Belief of Initial Endothelial Injury in Heart Attacks

The prevailing model of coronary artery disease is based on the erroneous belief that all arterial lesions begin with initial endothelial injury. This error led to the view that heart attacks can be prevented only by avoiding injury to endothelial cells, and to yet more grievous plumbing model of cardiovascular diseases and the use of drugs, stents, and bypass procedures to prevent heart attacks (myocardial infarction).


Below is that single microscopic field that invalidates the plumbing-endothelial model of arterial disease that leads to heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease.

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