Succinate As the Dominant Player in Krebs Cycle Bioenergetics

Majid Ali, M.D.

 Succinate Circa 2004

Table 1. The Frequency of Increased* Urinary Excretion of Metabolites of the Krebs Cycle in 236 Patients with Dysoxygenosis

Citric acid

Succinic acid

Aconitic acid

Fumaric acid

2-oxo-glutaric acid






* Increases beyond the laboratory range for the general population. Levels of acids measured in mmol/mol creatinine.

Succinate Circa 2015

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